|EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM IN EAST AFRICA
The Effects of Scramble and Partition in East Africa
East Africa was divided among the European powers i.e. Britain and Germany. The British took up Uganda and Kenya which was the northern part of East Africa and Germany took Tanganyika which was the southern part of East Africa. The effects include the following:
The East African states lost their independence and were subjected to European rule and administration e.g. Kenya and Uganda in were in the hands of the British while Tanzania was controlled by the Germans.
Many African chiefs or kings were killed or sent into exile because of the scramble and partition in East Africa for example Kabalega and Mwanga were exiled while chief Mkwawa of the Hehe was beheaded for resisting German colonial rule in Tanganyika.
They established new systems of administration i.e. indirect rule by the British and direct rule by the Germans.
The Africans were regarded as an inferior group and were forced to provide labour for European plantations and other public works.
There was an increase of Europeans in East Africa for example many of them settled in the Kenya highlands. Thus Africans lost their land and were put into reserve camps e.g. the Masai.
After the partition, new boundaries were drawn and defined in East Africa without respect of the tribes which led to disunity of Africans.
Slave trade was completely wiped out and replaced with legitimate trade in East Africa.
Scramble and partition accelerated the construction and development of infrastructure such as schools, hospitals, roads and bridges.
There was maximum exploitation of resources in East Africa like Ivory, Minerals like Gold, Copper, and Cash crops like Cotton, Coffee, and Sisal etc.
Agriculture was promoted and developed and some of the cash crops which were introduced like cotton and sisal became the export base of East Africa. They also introduced new methods of farming.
They developed legitimate trade, which enabled them to get raw materials for their industries and they sold their products to East Africans.
They promoted the western culture in East Africa for example the way of dressing, religion, building, eating habits etc.
They undermined African cultures who took up the western culture and goods. Africans therefore developed an inferiority complex as their traditional customs were despised and they took up the European culture as their way of life.
Taxes were introduced to be paid in form of money for example hut tax and gun tax, which encouraged the use of money.
Western formal education was introduced which replaced informal African education.
Administrative centres/posts were built in East Africa for example in Kampala, Nairobi and Dar-es-Salaam.
Christianity was introduced and spread in East Africa whereby many people were converted from Islam to Christianity. Various churches were also constructed in East Africa.