FOR THE BANTU MIGRATION |
reasons for the migration of the Bantu are not known but they most likely included
and famine: They moved due to the fear of famine, which broke out
due to overcrowding and drought. The climate in their cradle land had become unreliable/unpredictable.
increase which resulted into over crowding: They migrated due to
population pressure, e.g. they became overpopulated in their cradle land. This
led to the scarcity of grazing and agriculture land, and so they had to move to
look for more land, both for agriculture and for their cattle.
attacks (external pressure) from stronger tribes in West Africa
and the Nile valley. They moved due to external pressure, especially due to the
migration of the Arabs into West Africa. The Arabs were believed to be more hostile,
and so Africans were forced to move southwards.
conflicts from the Bantu tribes: they migrated due to internal misunderstandings/conflicts
between the different clans. These conflicts concerned the ownership of agriculture
area, the shortage of grazing lands and watering areas.
and diseases/natural calamities: The Bantu moved due to natural
disasters, e.g. earthquakes, over flooding of rivers like river Niger, sickness,
diseases such as Nagana caused by Tsetse flies, sleeping sickness e.t.c.
- Search for
fertile land: Since they were predominantly farmers, the Bantu migrated
in order to find
more land which could be more fertile than the cradle land, which could no longer
support them. E.g. they had changed from hunting and gathering fruits, to farming
and had even discovered new crops such as yams, banana, and e.t.c
adventure: They moved due to their desire for adventure, i.e. they
wanted to find out what was happening in other areas.
Some moved because they had seen their relatives and friends move.
water and pasture for their animals forced them to move.
Bantu migrated in order to export their iron-working culture.
They had discovered the knowledge of iron working and had invented iron tools.
These iron tools had transformed the agricultural sector by making the clearing
of land fro cultivation faster and more efficient.
of the Bantu Migration
The results of the Bantu migration were both positive and negative.
results of the Bantu migration were both positive and negative.
The positive results include;
of iron working: they introduced iron-working and the use of iron
tools in the interior of East Africa were at first using stone tools but when
iron-smelting was started, there was an increase in food production.
of new crops e.g. yams, bananas: the Bantu introduced and increased
the knowledge of food and extensive crop cultivation. Earlier on, the inhabitants
of East Africa were food gatherers, but with iron smelting and its results, food
production seriously started.
absorbed other tribes e.g. the gathers: This led to a widespread
Bantu languages of “NTU”
prefix in East Africa.
introduced centralized administration: They introduced a centralized
system of government whereby the king acted as the overall ruler, under whom were
the other chiefs, down to the lay person.
a system of building permanent homes: They opened new land to settlement
in families, clans and villages.
knowledge of iron smelting which the Bantu introduced led to the making of hoes
and pangas for tilling and clearing land, the bows, arrows and spears for defense
introduced subsistence agriculture, whereby they grew enough food
for home consumption, and the rest could be kept in case of shortages, or be exchanged
in barter trade.
led to a rise of large states and bigger tribes in East Africa, e.g. the Baganda,
Kikuyu, Nyamwezi. e.t.c
Bantu migration led to depopulation: This was caused by the frequent
attacks made by the Bantu against the people East Africa for land, through wars.
Many people died through these wars, e.g. the Zimba would attack people at the
coast, kill them, and eat their fresh (i.e. cannibalism).
There was loss
of culture due to cultural absorption: This was brought about due
to Bantu intermarrying with the non- Bantu peoples, whom they came across.
There was transformation
of languages into new ones: This led to the dying down of some of
the Bantu languages, while others remained.
(a) who are the Bantu?
(b) Why did they move from their cradle land?
(a) Describe the movement and settlement of Bantu people in E. Africa.
What were the effects of their movement and settlement on the people of East Africa.